Author Archive

Empathy and the Shy Little Lady

Article Contributed by Guest Author Patrick B. McLaughlin M.A., M.Ed.

Although this is a story about Halloween, we didn’t want to wait until next Halloween to share it.  It was written by Patrick McLaughlin, an amazingly empathetic S+EI coach from Quebec, Canada.   Enjoy!

Whether one is a parent, a friend, a manager, a police officer or whatever, a well-developed facility in ‘Interpersonal Effectiveness’ goes a long way in creating the possibility of Trust and in Improving Relationships.  The individual who demonstrates such Impersonal Effectiveness is not inhibited by the reality that there can be an element of risk in not being aware of the other’s potential reaction.  However, there is a powerful safety valve contained in sensitivity and in the ability to ‘read’ what is not being verbalized.

Far removed from the corporate world, here is a Halloween event which, at least in my opinion, reflects the qualities of Empathy and Interpersonal Effectiveness.

The local organic food store displays a multitude of enticing items but, since space is limited, circulation can be challenging at times.  I had just picked up my ‘Millet and Soya Bread’ and was making my way in the direction of whatever other required item was on my mental list. My progress was somewhat interrupted  by the presence of a mother and her daughter also experiencing some degree of difficulty in circumventing the various barriers.  The little girl was rigged out in a party dress and I noticed that something resembling a floral design and sparklers illuminated her face.  Not being particularly inhibited by nature, I said to her, ‘I like your face’.  Very shyly she looked at me and then turned to her mother for consolation.  Now my conversation continued with the mother and I asked if the little girl was shy which the mother confirmed, then addressed her daughter in French.  Presuming that the language barrier may have been the primary reason for her discomfort, I also spoke to her ‘en français’ but the hesitency remained.  The mother informed me that her little girl was preparing to go ‘trick-or-treat’ing, its being Halloween.  ‘Alors tu vas chanter ce soir?’ (So you are going to sing this evening?).  She murmured  something which I understood to be ‘Yes’.  When I asked her what she was going to sing, (Qu’est-ce que tu vas chanter?), silence returned.

The shopping continued and I would presume that the little girl was glad to find herself once more in the reassuring safety of her mother’s caring, delighted that the inquisitive stranger had finally left her in peace.

It was not to be.  Our paths crossed again at the checkout counter.  The little girl looked at me with some suggestion of comfort.  So I started again, all en français.  ‘I also will be going trick-or-treating this evening and I will be singing many songs in order to get lots of goodies’, (a figment of my imagination, of course)  and I sang her a bit of a song…’Frère Jacques, Frère Jacques, Dormez-vous, Dormez-vous? etc’.  Then I pushed gently ahead, asking her what song she was going to sing.  Wonder of wonders..she sang her song, clinging to her mother.  ‘You have a lovely voice’, I said, ‘and you will surely gather lots of candies and cakes this evening’.  ‘Will you share them with your Mummy?’ ‘No.’  ‘Why not’, I asked.  Without a moment’s hesitation, she came up with a rather sound justification for keeping all the goodies for herself.  ‘My Mummy does not like cakes’.

Not only was this a wonderfully warm encounter, but I noticed that the mother, the gentleman behind the counter and two other ladies who were there to shop and not to hear the two of us rehearsing our singing programme for Halloween had delighted smiles on their faces. The power of empathy had not only successfully inspired this young lady to sing in public but had reached out and touched three strangers and evidently warmed the heart of the mother who must have been delighted to witness her shy little daughter abandoning her reserve in such a delightful manner.  The power of empathy created a positive change, even for a moment, in the spirit of all these individuals who beforehand were complete strangers.  And, judging by her attitude in the final scene, her Halloween was not ruined.

This impromptu encounter most certainly illustrated the extent to which the expression of empathy can create positive change in a group setting.  The little lady who was the focus of my attention was not the only one to manifest that something had touched her in that moment; the evidently delighted response of the others, even though they were merely onlookers, was a testimony to the power of empathy.

Do High Performers Always Make Great Leaders?

Article contributed by Lisa L. Custardo, CC-SEI, MBA, CPA, CGMA

According to Duncan Mathison, Managing Director of Executive Coaching for DBM, a human capital management firm, “The most commonly cited reason employees leave companies is their unhappiness with their manager.” In fact, “The top 10% of the managers in a company will have half the turnover rate of the middle 80% and two and a half times less turnover than the bottom 10%”, he says. “Good leadership makes a huge difference in not only retention but overall company performance.”

So, as professionals, what can we do increase the effectiveness in ourselves and our managers to secure the optimal level of human capital that effectively sustains the rising expectations of our company’s operational, financial, and leadership performance? Hire the right people – with the right talents – put them in the right place – and, treat them right. Right? Sounds easy enough, doesn’t it? Mathison goes on to state, “The skills that make a high performer are NOT the same skills that make good leaders. Research shows that only 29% of those employees who are high-performers have the potential to be great leaders. Two qualities make the difference. First, great managers have high emotional intelligence; they know themselves better and handle themselves well with others. Secondly, they are very good at learning and applying what they learn to improve their skills.” Ah – therein lies the key.

In my personal and professional opinion, if you are looking to increase your skills and awareness in the area of emotional intelligence, and/or that of the managers in your organization, you are in exactly the right place! In working directly with the Institute for Social + Emotional Intelligence and the coaches & practitioners certified to administer the self-assessment Social + Emotional Intelligence profile (SEIP), you will likely find yourself in perfect company to gain the best insight, knowledge and tools that put you, your employees, and your company at the best pivotal vantage point for professional success.

Outlining 26 significant areas identified as critical in socially and emotionally intelligent individuals, teams and organizations, the SEIP material has been highly recognized as the most comprehensive, statistically-reliable, scientifically- validated instrument on the market today. Including such important areas as stress management, emotional self awareness, innovation & creativity, resilience, managing conflict productively, integrity, personal power and agility, powerful influencing skills, catalyzing change, teamwork and collaboration, communication, building trust & bonds, and inspirational leadership, it’s no wonder Mr. Mathison and DBM site emotional intelligence as a critical factor for professional and organizational success.

For anyone aspiring to be a top executive, or even a great manager for that fact, I offer the following recommendations, as laid out by DBM, including a few additions of my own:

  • Find an organization that invests in employee development
  • Challenge yourself to improve your ability to work with others
  • Seek out feedback
  • If you are a manager, get an executive coach to help you develop the leadership skills for the next level of responsibility
  • Invest in yourself and those around you by becoming more aware about the level of your own emotional intelligence strengths and limitations and develop a stronger sense of social awareness, understanding, and influence
  • Learn what the behaviors look like in those that demonstrate strong emotional and social intelligence and model them regularly
  • Go the extra step of identifying and  improving areas within the competency areas of social and emotional intelligence that you personally see as vital for your own self-development and that of your organization

Recommendations as set forth by DBM – Zenger and Folkman, The Extraordinary Leader

Are you part of the 29% that Mr. Mathison refers to as, “high-performing professionals who also have the potential to be great leaders?” If so, how do you know AND what are you effectively doing to amplify and sustain your leadership talent and that of your organization, in helping your company rise to an exceptional level of performance?

I look forward to any input, comments, suggestions and/or additional recommendations for those aspiring to great leadership.

My highest regard,

Lisa L. Custardo

Having It All vs. Having Enough

Article Contributed by Guest Author Hope Eaton

For years Kyle was dedicated to a career he loved, and was almost happy with his work/life imbalance.  That is, until he had a family.  Once this happened, it was no longer okay to work 16 hour days.  There were other things that were important to Kyle, and he wanted to do everything as perfectly as he did his job.  He wanted it all, and why not, everyone else seemed to be doing it.

And yet, Kyle began to experience a great deal of frustration because he wanted to spend more time with his wife, his kids and his friends.  He wanted to keep up his exercise program, and he also wanted to keep doing the work he loved.

However, when he was at work, he did not feel fully engaged because he was thinking about the T-ball game his son was playing that he was missing; and when he was with his family, he was stressed and frustrated about the presentation he was not getting done.   When he was out with friends, he did not fully enjoy their company because he was thinking about the laps he should be swimming.

Kyle finally got to the point where he was not fully enjoying anything.   Everything he read about work-life balance, about being more productive and how to squeeze more in his days was not helping him, and his stress levels rose.

This is when he reached out for coaching.  We worked together to design his life through the lens of the emotional intelligence competency of realistic optimism rather than the “I can have it all” perfectionism he had been pursuing.  Starting with this optimal life exercise from Tal Ben-Shahar, PhD, Kyle:

1. Identified the most important domains in his life.  For him these were:

  • Professional / career
  • Parenting / family
  • Romantic / spouse
  • Personal health / exercise
  • Economic / financial security

2. Created a two-column chart of what each of these domains would look like in a “perfect” world and what they would look like if they were “good enough.”

Domain Perfect Good Enough
Professional 8 hours of solid work per day 3 hours of “real” work per day with no interruptions
Parenting Spend all weekend with the kids as well as all mornings and evenings Have dinner and/or breakfast with his family 4 times/week
Romantic A date night 3 times per week A date night 1 night every two weeks
Personal Health 2 hours of exercise per day and 30 minutes of meditation 2 times per day 1 hour of exercise a day  (with weekends off) and two 10-minute meditations daily
Economic Tuition pre-paid for all 3 children by the time they are 3, $500,000 in savings by 40. Open a 529 and put away what they can and contribute to 401K up to employer match

Kyle identified the best possible scenarios for each domain given the realities of his life.  He accepted that he, like most of us, cannot have it all and that life is not “perfect.”  As a result, he is now fully engaged in each major domain of his life, and he is happier and less stressed.  Life is good !

How have you helped your clients work realistic optimism into their lives?

What is the Impact of Social & Emotional Intelligence on a Business’s Financial Status?

Article Contributed by Guest Author Pam Watson Korbel

Larry Linschneider, CEO & Owner of Linschneider Construction Co. (LCC), has watched his highway construction business slowly decline since 2008 when the recession hit the United States.

During the last 18 months, new projects are starting at a rate of 1 per month versus an average of 2 per month previously.  Consequently, sales revenues are 60% of the norm and profit has slid 5 percentage points to 3% for the past year.

More importantly, work is not fun for Linschneider anymore.  His employees act like children so he stopped having staff meetings.  The managers who report directly to him lack motivation so he quit managing them.  The ‘yard’ where equipment and supplies are stored is messy and two safety incidents occurred there in the past three months.  Plus, at a time when it would make sense for Linschneider to be re-kindling relationships to take advantage of potential construction opportunities, he chooses to withdraw even more spending most of his time in his office on his computer.  And two ‘A Player’ executives with LCC are now shopping for jobs with the competition.

While the names, company and statistics have been changed in this scenario, it is all too common.  Unfortunately, Larry Linschneider and many of his executive peers have not read any of the current literature about the impact of emotional intelligence on a business firm’s financial status.  If Larry and other executives had this information, they would have learned:

  • Lack of personal awareness among leaders is the number one cause of declining and failing businesses.  Larry has given up all his personal power to the karma called the economy.
  • Employees take their cues from their leaders on how to act and as a consequence change their behavior to mirror the boss.  Larry’s job isn’t fun anymore because attitudes are contagious.
  • Research by Six Seconds shows that 76% of business issues are people and relationship related versus 24% technical and financial.  Yet, executives like Larry spend hours tweaking cash flow reports to improve profitability.
  • Sales in companies that put a high value on people and relationships internally and externally can be as high as 37% more.  Small and mid-sized companies that focus on high customer service still find opportunities during economic downturns.
  • Profit in these same companies runs 27% higher, largely due to a company’s ability to take work away from competitors who do not value service and loyalty.
  • Employees with high achievement motivation, empathy and self confidence are more productive than those with just high intelligence.
  • The Gallup Organization’s research shows that 75% of workers are disengaged in their jobs resulting from the lack of useful feedback, poor assignment of tasks, not seeing the value of their work and working in a negative work environment.  Retention of ‘A Players’ is critical during a recession because forward-thinking companies consider this a good time to steal them away.

The research on emotional intelligence and its impact on business is convincing: hard results can be derived with soft skills.  Do you get it?

5 Easy Steps to Fabulous Feedback

Once in my career, my “boss” wrote my annual review in pencil. Yes, seriously. There was very little feedback on the actual form and when pressed, I learned he wrote it in the 15 minutes before I arrived in his office for our meeting. I felt devalued and like I was wasting my time. My trust was completely blown and my respect for him dropped immensely. The same person whose lips were saying, “I really want to see you succeed, how can I help?” was showing me through his actions that there was no intention to follow through.

As leaders, it is essential for us to “get it right” when it comes to coaching and mentoring others in our organization. These may be peers, direct reports, or even our superiors, as the need to manage up is crucial for our success. Giving positive, constructive feedback is key. I don’t mean the “pat on the back variety.” I mean real, meaningful feedback that allows the individual to truly know how they are doing, what can be done better, and celebrate specific successes.

When you are giving feedback in an annual review, or in the moment, be sure to use the following steps to maximize the value for the individual receiving it also for you.

  • Be specific—provide specific examples of actions and behaviors that attributed to the outcomes. Balance the positive and the negative as much as possible. Avoid judgment in your specifics. Just the facts “ma’am.” And be genuine in your approach.
  • Be timely—in an annual review, be careful of focusing only on events that have occurred recently. Instead, be sure you have collected successes and challenges from throughout the year. This should not be the first time your report should be hearing about either positive or negative situations. The annual review is a round-up; a time to review the progress being made. Feedback on performance should be ongoing to avoid surprises and maximize the opportunity for learning and growing.
  • Show courage and compassion—don’t dance around if you are delivering difficult feedback to an individual. Get right to the point and offer suggestions for how improvements can be made. This provides the individual with hope and moves them into thinking about the future instead of the past. Make sure you affirm the talents and skills of the individual. Equally important for leaders is to not fool yourself. Do not excuse poor behavior or performance. You may need to show courage and compassion by cutting your losses. This can be freedom producing for both you and the individual.
  • Be sincere and honest without demoralizing the person—empty praise is easy and just…well…empty. Likewise, words like “always” and “never” will lose your audience and they will not be able to see through their defensive lens. Do not go on the attack. This isn’t about putting someone in their place. Feedback is about helping someone rise to be a better version of themselves.
  • Prepare, Prepare, Prepare—It is critical to spend some time thinking about what really needs to be said and the best way to say it. Ask yourself how you would receive the information presented they way you are considering? Do you need to make some adjustments? Are there extenuating circumstances that will make it easier or more difficult to hear feedback at this time?

Quality feedback increases trust, accelerates results, and ultimately impacts the bottom line. Great leaders have a gift for giving timely, effective feedback that moves those they are mentoring/coaching to the next level as they incorporate changes in their behaviors and performance practices.

To fully assess your current competence in Coaching and Mentoring Others and create a personalized development plan, contact the Institute for Social +Emotional Intelligence at or go to our website to learn more.

“Happy” Your Way To A More Innovative And Creative Mindset

Article Contributed by Guest Author Hope Eaton

Recently I have been coaching a client, Kellie, who did not find meaning or engagement in her work yet could not see a way to change her situation.  From the outside, she looked successful as she managed to juggle the demands of her career and raising her 3 children with her partner, but she had the self-awareness to know that this was just the external perception.  Kellie was increasingly frustrated that she could not see any new solutions or get a fresh perspective on how to make changes that would allow her to realize her goal of better integrating her work and her personal life.

Because Kellie, like many of us, spent much of her day looking for problems and how to solve them, Kellie’s brain was literally wired to look for the negative.  As research in positive psychology illustrates, this focus on problems and the negative undercut her creativity, increased her stress levels, and lowered her motivation and ability to accomplish her goal.

To spark her innovation and creativity competencies so that she could come up with some fresh ideas to accomplish her goal, we utilized the following three techniques from positive psychology.

  1. Develop a positive habit:  Kelly took 5 minutes at the end of the day to make a list of what was positive in her work and personal live.  She alternated between reviewing each days events to identify an event or two that was positive in her day and making the exercise more general. This trained her brain to notice and focus on possibilities for growth and seize on opportunities to act on them.
  2. Develop a gratitude habit:  She also took 5 minutes at the beginning of each day to write down 3 things for which she was grateful.  Research shows that consistently grateful people are more creative, energetic, emotionally intelligent and less likely to be depressed, anxious or lonely.
  3. Identify your strengths and use them every day (a great free tool for this is the VIA Survey of Character Strengths which can be found on the Authentic Happiness website after you register).  Kellie was not completely surprised by the strengths that she identified; however, she was not using her top 5 very frequently.  Knowing your personal character strengths – what is best about you as a human being – is powerful knowledge that can be used to reach your full potential with your work, your family and your relationships.

By using these techniques, Kellie was able to take a look at her strengths and saw that there was a major disconnect between her strengths the work that she was doing.  After adopting the positive habit and gratitude habit, and armed with knowledge of her strengths, Kellie approached her employer to change the scope and terms of her employment to ensure that she was able to exercise her top strengths each day and modify her schedule so that she could spend more time with her family, one of her core values.   As a result, Kellie is much more happy and is using her enhanced creativity and innovation competency to identify new market opportunities and products at work and to engage with her family in new ways at home.

Will You Just Listen to Yourself?

Article contributed by guest author Joel H. Head, ACC

The Screamer!My mother’s voice comes back to me from time to time. It was her way of saying slow down. Check in. Is that how you really feel? Just listen to yourself.

Listening to your inner voice, some say “God’s voice”, is a way of tuning in to your innermost thoughts and beliefs. The scientists call it “clairaudience.” Sometimes that inner voice is calm and reassuring or even a cheerleader. And sometimes, operating out of fear, it yells stop, you’re not good enough, or not smart enough to pull that off.

Self-awareness, one of the tenets of emotional intelligence, can be difficult to achieve. You have to get in touch with how you feel in the moment and how events or people affect you. Does your boss give you a headache? Do deadlines curl a knot in your stomach? What exactly are you feeling right now? And what triggered that feeling?

Self-awareness also means listening to your innermost thoughts and emotions because they provide clues to how you are acting and the results you are getting. Are your inner beliefs holding you back, like an anchor weighs down a boat? Or are your innermost thoughts propelling you forward with wind in your sails? Just listen to yourself for clues about how to deal with daily situations in your life.

There is truth in the old saying “be careful what you wish for”. Because thoughts are energy which attracts like-energy. Like beams into the universe, your negative thoughts will attract negative people or events. Think more positive energizing thoughts and the world will open up. Author Mike Dooley sums it up simply as “thoughts become things.”

So tune into yourself. Become more aware of how you are feeling and what you are thinking at different parts of the day. In addition to just being plain relaxing, the information you gain will help you to lead a happier, more energetic life.

There is a voice inside of you
That whispers all day long,
“I feel this is right for me,
I know that this is wrong.”
No teacher, preacher, parent, friend
Or wise man can decide
What’s right for you–just listen to
The voice that speaks inside.”
Shel Silverstein

Sales Managers as Empathetic Leaders

Article Contributed by Guest Author Pam Watson Korbel

As an interim sales manager, I have developed a new-found appreciation for Empathy and believe it may be the most under-utilized tool of business leaders.  My conclusion results from first-hand observation.  We expect our sales executives to show empathy to both clients and prospects.  Unfortunately, as sales managers we often do not display empathy to become role models for the employees we supervise.  Here are some examples:

  1. I heard a sales manager report that he told his staff directly, “If you think you’re a top sales person, then I don’t want to see you in the office.”   A better approach might be to provide a guideline to sales staff on how many hours a week to spend outside the office and what those activities should include.  Consider saying directly, “A top sales person spends 20 hours a week meeting with prospects and clients and attending networking meetings.”
  2. Some sales managers keep their staff on the telephone cold calling until they find success the same day.  In my experience, this backfires.  A pattern of no response from prospects leads to low energy for the sales person and becomes a negative cycle.  I give permission for my staff to change gears and work on a different activity in these situations to regenerate their energy.
  3. Too many sales managers focus on pushing paper and measuring numbers and don’t put enough time into ‘partnering’ with their staff.  Making sales visits with your sales executives provides opportunities to be a role model and a teacher and promotes trust.

Showing empathy to your sales staff is not weakness.  It shows strength.  Most sales managers walked along the same paths and could engender stronger performance from their staffs by being more empathetic.  Being a role model and a teacher are the productive methods to show empathy.

Coaching – A Powerful Tool for Organizational Success

Article contributed by Arul John Peter

I am soft skill facilitator based in Singapore (Asia) and have been conducting soft skills training for more than 25 years. Enabling managers as coach was not an area of my training activity. I was focusing on making each of my participant, a better employee or a manager, not paying much attention to make each of my participant a ‘multiplier’. This approach to my training changed following my participation in ISEI’s Social + Emotional Intelligence certification workshop and Leader as Coach program. The two training session brought about a new perspective on the importance of having a pool of trained and enabled managers as coaches. Managers who had been exposed to the managers as coach, find the approach useful in the workplace. It made them feel good about their contribution to people development.

Leading and managing in the 21st century is not an easy task. The need to get along with a whole group of stakeholders and move forward to achieve the vision and goals together demands a new set of skills. The Development Dimensions International (DDI), a global organization that offers solutions on talent management, identified ‘coaching and developing others as one of the five most critical skills needed on the part of managers and leaders for managing and leading the future, in its publication titled ‘Time for a leadership Revolution’. The remaining four skills are creativity & innovation, identifying and developing talent driving & managing change and executing organizational strategy. Invariably, developing these skills would require a high dose of coaching.

Research after research confirms that the benefits of coaching include the following:

  • Coaching improves teamwork and productivity.
  • Enable staff to take ownership to get things done
  • It improves the outcome of business strategies.

Coaching as a skill and development tool, allowing managers within an organization to help individual employees and teams perform at their peak. Training and developing managers to become coaches is probably the best way to bring about meaningful and sustainable changes within the organization. Having the services of a competent and certified coach/facilitator who could train and develop the managers to function as coaches is more effective. Coaches/facilitators who are trained in programs such as “leader as coaches,” offered by Institute for Social + Emotional Intelligence would be able to take full advantage of Positive Deviant Initiatives,  a concept that is attributed to Tufts University. The managers who are trained to handle coaching sessions could amplify the positive and desired practices that are already working within the organization. Research and organizational studies confirm that solutions which originate from outside the organizations are not accepted easily by the internal stakeholders. It is the best practices that are identified by the key players within the organization, that make the organization successful. The best option is to identify key players and provide them with the relevant coaching skills and let them become the catalyst.

Giota, a Living Symbol of Resilience

Article Contributed by Guest Author Patrick B. McLaughlin M.A., M.Ed.

‘Films that Transform’ is a series of documentaries whose stated purpose is captured in the outline: “The journey toward growth and transformation on the life journey is marked by both promise and pitfalls for each of us.”

The film presented most recently was ‘Giota’s Journey’, the story of a 48-year old Montreal lady born with cerebral palsy, unable to speak and confined to a wheelchair.  However, Giota is a living symbol of resilience; she may not be able to speak but she is able to communicate.  Unwilling to accept remaining imprisoned in her own isolation, Giota, using the Bliss system, named after its creator, is able to reveal her dreams, her joy, her disappointments and aspirations through movement of her eyes in the direction of non-visible dual columns of numbers allowing a trained interpreter to verbalize her thoughts.

In the case of such a multiple “handicapped” individual whose very existence depends on the ongoing presence of family and external caretakers, is it possible to recognize any semblance of ‘Personal Power’?  However, rather than floundering in a morass of self-pity, Giota courageously reached beyond the limitations of her condition and is currently enrolled in a Psychology programme at a Junior College.  I would presume that it is not her intention to one day work in this area.  The ultimate goal is irrelevant; that Giota would even contemplate such a journey is a demonstration of the “Personal Power” factor which incited her to fully utilize her intelligence rather than allow herself to spend her life under a cloud of self-rejection and isolation.

In spite of Giota’s very apparent physical and neurological limitations which quite possibly may initially stimulate negative reactions, it is evident that her courage, determination and optimistic personality may serve as a wake-up call to lead one to appreciate that the external image does not define who the other person is.  Giota’s “Interpersonal Effectiveness” skill may sow the seeds of reflection in appreciating differences.

In a later conversation with Dr. Tom Hutchinson, professor in the Medical Faculty of McGill University, a reference was made to “Interpersonal Effectiveness” as an essential quality among medical practitioners.  I asked him what impact this documentary would hopefully have on young medical students.  He expressed a hope that the experience of seeing someone who, at first glance, appeared so ‘different’ would encourage aspiring caregivers to see the ’whole person’, not simply the health issue.  In other words, medical practice would be greatly enhanced by the development of “Interpersonal Effectiveness”.

Dr. Hutchinson is in charge of the ‘Whole Person Care’ programme whose mission is to ‘transform western medicine by synergizing the scientific advances of modern biomedicine with the potential for healing in every healthcare encounter.’

A later blog will cover the conversation which I had with Dr. Hutchinson in which we looked at the value of Social and Emotional Intelligence awareness in the next generation of medical practitioners.

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